Article XVIII: - Page 3 of 4

Transitory Provisions

(The 1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines)

Section 21

The Congress shall provide efficacious procedures and adequate remedies for the reversion to the State of all lands of the public domain and real rights connected therewith which were acquired in violation of the Constitution or the public land laws, or through corrupt practices.  No transfer or disposition of such lands or real rights shall be allowed until after the lapse of one year from the ratification of this Constitution.

Section 22

At the earliest possible time, the Government shall expropriate idle or abandoned lands as may be defined by law, for distribution to the beneficiaries of the agrarian reform program.

Section 23

Advertising entities affected by paragraph (2), Section 11 of Article XVI of this Constitution shall have five years from its ratification to comply on a graduated or proportionate basis with the minimum Filipino ownership requirement therein.

Section 24

Private armies and other armed groups not recognized by duly constituted authority shall be dismantled.  All paramilitary forces including Civilian Home Defense Forces not consistent with the citizen armed force established in this Constitution, shall be dissolved or, where appropriate, converted into the regular force.

Section 25

After the expiration in 1991 of the Agreement between the Republic of the Philippines and the United States of America concerning Military Bases, foreign military bases, troops, or facilities shall not be allowed in the Philippines except under a treaty duly concurred in by the Senate and, when the Congress so requires, ratified by a majority of the votes cast by the people in a national referendum held for that purpose, and recognized as a treaty by the other contracting State.

Section 26

The authority to issue sequestration or freeze orders under Proclamation No.  3 dated March 25, 1986 in relation to the recovery of ill-gotten wealth shall remain operative for not more than eighteen months after the ratification of this Constitution.  However, in the national interest, as certified by the President, the Congress may extend said period.

A sequestration or freeze order shall be issued only upon showing of a prima facie case.  The order and the list of the sequestered or frozen properties shall forthwith be registered with the proper court.  For orders issued before the ratification of this Constitution, the corresponding judicial action or proceeding shall be filed within six months from its ratification.  For those issued after such ratification, the judicial action or proceeding shall be commenced within six months from the issuance thereof.

The sequestration or freeze order is deemed automatically lifted if no judicial action or proceeding is commenced as herein provided.

Section 27

This Constitution shall take effect immediately upon its ratification by a majority of the votes cast in a plebiscite held for the purpose and shall supersede all previous Constitutions.

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