Article XII: - Page 3 of 3

National Economy and Patrimony

(The 1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines)

Section 13

The State shall pursue a trade policy that serves the general welfare and utilizes all forms and arrangements of exchange on the basis of equality and reciprocity.

Section 14

The sustained development of a reservoir of national talents consisting of Filipino scientists, entrepreneurs, professionals, managers, high-level technical manpower and skilled workers and craftsmen in all fields shall be promoted by the State.  The State shall encourage appropriate technology and regulate its transfer for the national benefit.

The practice of all professions in the Philippines shall be limited to Filipino citizens, save in cases prescribed by law.

Section 15

The Congress shall create an agency to promote the viability and growth of cooperatives as instruments for social justice and economic development.

Section 16

The Congress shall not, except by general law, provide for the formation, organization, or regulation of private corporations.  Government-owned or controlled corporations may be created or established by special charters in the interest of the common good and subject to the test of economic viability.

Section 17

In times of national emergency, when the public interest so requires, the State may, during the emergency and under reasonable terms prescribed by it, temporarily take over or direct the operation of any privately owned public utility or business affected with public interest.

Section 18

The State may, in the interest of national welfare or defense, establish and operate vital industries and, upon payment of just compensation, transfer to public ownership utilities and other private enterprises to be operated by the Government.

Section 19

The State shall regulate or prohibit monopolies when the public interest so requires.  No combinations in restraint of trade or unfair competition shall be allowed.

Section 20

The Congress shall establish an independent central monetary authority, the members of whose governing board must be natural-born Filipino citizens, of known integrity, and patriotism, the majority of whom shall come from the private sector.  They shall also be subject to such other qualifications and disabilities as may be prescribed by law.  The authority shall provide policy direction in the areas of money, banking, and credit.  It shall have supervision over the operations of banks and exercise such regulatory powers as may be provided by law over the operations of finance companies and other institutions performing similar functions.

Until the Congress otherwise provides, the Central Bank of the Philippines, operating under existing laws, shall function as the central monetary authority.

Section 21

Foreign loans may only be incurred in accordance with law and the regulation of the monetary authority.  Information on foreign loans obtained or guaranteed by the Government shall be made available to the public.

Section 22

Acts which circumvent or negate any of the provisions of this Article shall be considered inimical to the national interest and subject to criminal and civil sanctions, as may be provided by law.