Antonio Luna

Born: October 29, 1869

Died: June 5, 1899

He was the greatest Filipino soldier during the Revolution. Noted for bravery, discipline, and unusual manner of fighting. Good writer and manager of "La Independencia".

Si Heneral Antonio Luna, isa sa pinakadakilang kawal na Pilipino, ay ipinanganak sa Urbistondo, Maynila noong ika-29 ng Oktubre ng 1869. Ang kaniyang mga magulang ay sina G. Joaquin Luna de San Pedro at Gng. Laureana Novicio. Kapatid niya ang dakilang pintor na si Juan Luna.

Pagkatapos mag-aral ng mga unang titik na abakada sa kanilang bahay, siya’y nag-aral sa "Ateneo Municipal de Manila." Dito’y tinapos niya ang "Bachiller en Artes" at nakakuha ng mataas na nota. Nag-aral siya ng parmasya sa Pamantasan ng Sto. Tomas.

Si Heneral Luna ay pumunta sa Barcelona at doon niya tinapos ang karunungan tungkol sa parmasya. Sa Universidad Sentral ng Madrid naman tinamo niya ang katibayan sa pagkamanggagamot. Nag-aral din siya sa Belhika at sa Pransya. Doo’y naging katulong siya ng mga bantog na kimikong sina Dr. Latteaux at Dr. Laffen. Dahil sa pagkakilala sa kaniyang katalinuhan ay inihalal siyang komisyonado ng pamahalaang kastila upang pag-aralan ang mga nakahahawang sakit. Nang siya’y magbalik sa Pilipinas, naglingkod siya sa pamahalaan bilang isang kimiko.

Si Antonio ay isa ring mahusay na manunulat. Ang rebistang "La Solidaridad" na itinatag sa España nina Rizal, Lopez-Jaena, at Marcelo H. del Pilar ang pinaglathalaan ng maraming mahuhusay niyang akda sa ilalim ng sagisag na "Taga-ilog." Namahala rin siya sa pahayagang "La Independencia." Ang pahayagang ito ang naging tagapamansag ng mga manghihimagsik at ng ating unang republika.

Noong 1897 si Antonio ay ipinatapon sa España dahil sa hinalang siya’y kaalam ng mga manghihimagsik. Siya’y ibinilanggo sa "Carcel Modelo de Madrid."

Nang siya’y makalayang muli ay pinag-aralan niya ang karunungan sa hukbo. Nagpakadalubhasa siya sa paraan ng pakikilaban at paghawak ng sandata.

Siya’y nagbalik sa Pilipinas. Nang sumiklab ang digmaan ng mga Amerikano at Pilipino si Antonio Luna ay ginawang heneral ng mga manghihimagsik ni Heneral Aguinaldo. Dahil sa ipinamalas niyang katapangan sa labanang kinasusuungan niya, ginawa siyang Direktor ng Digma noong ika-26 ng Setyembre ng 1898. Sa labanan sa Maynila at sa kalagitnaan ng Luzon, maging ang kalaban nilang Amerikano’y kumilala sa kaniyang katapangan at paraan ng pakikilaban.

Si Heneral Luna ay nagtatag ng isang akademya militar upang sanayin ang mga pinunong Pilipino sa disiplina at paraan ng pakikilaban.

Nang magkaroon ng sagupaan sa Kawit, Cavite natuklasan ni Heneral Antonio Luna na may mga kawal si Heneral Aguinaldo na wala sa kanilang pook na dapat tanuran. Ang ginawa niya’y sinamsam ang mga sandata nito. Pagkatapos ay ipinagharap niya ng sakdal sa hukumang militar ang mga ito sa salang pagtakas. Ginawa niya ang hangaring maging dictador. Mahigpit ang kaniyang disiplina.

Noong ika-2 ng Hunyo ng 1899 si Heneral Luna ay nakatanggap ng telegramang may lagda ni Heneral Aguinaldo na siya’y pinapupunta sa Cabanatuan. Si Heneral Luna ay dali-daling tumungo sa Cabanatuan noong Hunyo 5, 1899 ngunit hindi niya inabutan si Aguinaldo na nagpunta sa San Isidro. Walang anu-ano’y nakarinig siya ng putok sa lupa. Nang siya’y manaog upang alamin ang dahilan, siya ay binaril at napatay ng isang sarhento na isa sa sinamsaman niya ng armas sa Kawit, Cavite.

Si Antonio Luna ay may 31 taong gulang nang mapatay sa Cabanatuan. Bilang pagsunod sa kaniyang tagubilin, ang kaniyang bangkay na nakadamit militar ay binalot ng bandilang Pilipino.

General Antonio Luna, one of the foremost Filipino soldiers, was born in Urbiztondo, Manila, on October 29, 1869. His parents were Joaquin Luna de San Pedro and Laureana Novicio. The noted painter, Juan Luna, was his brother.

After learning the letters of the alphabet at home he studied at "Ateneo Municipal de Manila." Here he finished the Bachelor of Arts degree with honors. He studied pharmacy in Sto. Tomas University.

General Luna went to Barcelona, Spain, where he finished pharmacy. In the Central University of Madrid, he obtained the degree of doctor of medicine. He also studied in Belgium and France. There he was made assistant to the known chemist Dr. Latteaux and Dr. Laffen. In recognition of his ability he was elected commissioner of the Spanish government to study contagious diseases. When he returned to the Philippines, he served the Philippine government as chemist.

Antonio Luna was also a good writer. The "La Solidaridad" formed in Spain by Rizal, Lopez-Jaena and Marcelo H. del Pilar, was the magazine where he published his great works under the nom de plume "Taga-Ilog". He also managed the newspaper "La Independencia". This newspaper was the one that made the Revolutionists and the First Philippine Republic.

In 1897 Antonio Luna was deported to Spain for he was suspected to have some knowledge about the revolutionists. He was imprisoned in "Carcel Modelo de Madrid".

When he was released he studied military tactics. He studied very well how to fight and how to handle arms. He returned to the Philippines. When the Philippine-American war broke out, Antonio Luna was made general of Aguinaldo’s army. Because of his unusual showing and great bravery, he was made director of the war on September 26, 1898. In the battle of Manila and that of Central Luzon, even their own enemies recognized his bravery and the unusual manner of fighting.

When an encounter ensued in Kawit, Cavite, Genral Luna discovered that Aguinaldo had men who were not in their places of guard. He gathered their arms and afterwards he sued them in the military court for having abandoned their places. He acted like a dictator. He had a strict discipline.

On June 2, 1899, General Luna received a telegram signed by Aguinaldo ordering him to proceed to Cabanatuan. Gneral Luna immediately proceeded to Cabanatuan on June 5, 1899, but he did not overtake Aguinaldo who went to San Isidro. All of a sudden he heard shots on the ground. When General Luna went downstairs to find out what it was, the general was shot by a sergeant who was one of those he unarmed in Kawit, Cavite.

Antonio Luna was about 31 years old when he was ahot at Cabanatuan. In accordance with his wishes he was clothed in his military uniform and his coffin was wrapped in a Filipino flag.

Learn this Filipino word:

mahál na tao