General Provisions

(The 1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines)

Section 1

The territorial and political subdivisions of the Republic of the Philippines are the provinces, cities, municipalities, and barangays.  There shall be autonomous regions in Muslim Mindanao and the Cordilleras as hereinafter provided.

Section 2

The territorial and political subdivisions shall enjoy local autonomy.

Section 3

The Congress shall enact a local government code which shall provide for a more responsive and accountable local government structure instituted through a system of decentralization with effective mechanisms of recall, initiative, and referendum, allocate among the different local government units their powers, responsibilities, and resources, and provide for the qualifications, election, appointment and removal, term, salaries, powers and functions and duties of local officials, and all other matters relating to the organization and operation of local units.

Section 4

The President of the Philippines shall exercise general supervision over local governments.  Provinces with respect to component cities and municipalities, and cities and municipalities with respect to component barangays shall ensure that the acts of their component units are within the scope of their prescribed powers and functions.

Section 5

Each local government unit shall have the power to create its own sources of revenues and to levy taxes, fees, and charges subject to such guidelines and limitations as the Congress may provide, consistent with the basic policy of local autonomy.  Such taxes, fees, and charges shall accrue exclusively to the local governments.

Section 6

Local government units shall have a just share, as determined by law, in the national taxes which shall be automatically released to them.

Section 7

Local governments shall be entitled to an equitable share in the proceeds of the utilization and development of the national wealth within their respective areas, in the manner provided by law, including sharing the same with the inhabitants by way of direct benefits.

Section 8

The term of office of elective local officials, except barangay officials, which shall be determined by law, shall be three years and no such official shall serve for more than three consecutive terms.  Voluntary renunciation of the office for any length of time shall not be considered as an interruption in the continuity of his service for the full term for which he was elected.

Section 9

Legislative bodies of local governments shall have sectoral representation as may be prescribed by law.

Section 10

No province, city, municipality, or barangay may be created, divided, merged, abolished, or its boundary substantially altered, except in accordance with the criteria established in the local government code and subject to approval by a majority of the votes cast in a plebiscite in the political units directly affected.

Learn this Filipino word:

mahabà ang dilà