Agrarian and Natural Resources Reform

(The 1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines)

Section 4

The Sate shall, by law, undertake an agrarian reform program founded on the right of farmers and regular farmworkers, who are landless, to own directly or collectively the lands they till or, in the case of other farmworkers, to receive a just share of the fruits thereof.  To this end, the State shall encourage and undertake the just distribution of all agricultural lands, subject to such priorities and reasonable retention limits as the Congress may prescribe, taking into account ecological, developmental, or equity considerations, and subject to the payment of just compensation.  In determining retention limits, the State shall respect the rights of small landowners.  The State shall further provide incentives for voluntary land-sharing.

Section 5

The State shall recognize the right of farmers, farmworkers, and landowners, as well as cooperatives, and other independent farmers' organizations to participate in the planning, organization, and management of the program, and shall provide support to agriculture through appropriate technology and research, and adequate financial, production, marketing, and other support services.

Section 6

The State shall apply the principles of agrarian reform or stewardship, whenever applicable in accordance with law, in the disposition or utilization of other natural resources, including lands of the public domain under lease or concession suitable to agriculture, subject to prior rights, homestead rights of small settlers, and the rights of indigenous communities to their ancestral lands.  The State may resettle landless farmers and farmworkers in its own agricultural estates which shall be distributed to them in the manner provided by law.

Section 7

The State shall protect the rights of subsistence fishermen, especially of local communities, to the preferential use of local marine and fishing resources, both inland and offshore.  It shall provide support to such fishermen through appropriate technology and research, adequate financial, production, and marketing assistance, and other services.  The State shall also protect, develop, and conserve such resources.  The protection shall extend to offshore fishing grounds of subsistence fishermen against foreign intrusion.  Fishworkers shall receive a just share from their labor in the utilization of marine and fishing resources.

Section 8

The State shall provide incentives to landowners to invest the proceeds of the agrarian reform program to promote industrialization, employment creation, and privatization of public sector enterprises.  Financial instruments used as payment for their lands shall be honored as equity in enterprises of their choice.

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